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22 Jan 2016 The world’s scientists look for alternative materials to replace Lithium in batteries since this metal is not available in masses and therefore will be expensive too. Instead of Lithium-Ion-batteries sodium-Ion-batteries are a solution. Since sodium in the form of sodium chloride is available in masses in the oceans and on the earth. The efficiency seems to be lower and the weight higher compared to Lithium-Ion-batteries. Not only the Paul-Scherrer-Institut in Switzerland is known for basic research here, in Germany at KIT/HIU Helmholtzinstitut Ulm scientists replaced other materials in the sodium-Ion-batteries to adapt them better to the needs. HIU scientists use carbon graphite from apple residues (apples which were used for juice production): The material is very cheap and seems to have excellent electro chemical  features. This new battery – without any polluting cobalt as in Lithium-Ion-batteries - is already proven in more than 1000 charging cycles. See magazines ChemElektroChem and Advanced Energy Materials.