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There are already – besides the big groups – energy providers owned by the citizens. These citizen owned systems spread, are much respected far more transparent systems, and are transmitted to other countries as to Japan after Fukushima

http://www.ews-schoenau.de/footer/international.html

Moreover there are more new companies at the horizon with new business models….

Please read more or less about Energy Provider Polarstern: We do not need millions http://green.wiwo.de/energieversorger-polarstern-wir-brauchen-doch-keine-millionen/

are mainly used for data transmission such as telephone calls or data from sites. These fibre optic cables are not used for current energy. Fibre optic cables can transmit light. The data are converted into light signals, transported through the glass fibre and than converted into legible data at the terminal.  In a normal current cable you can do that too: then the data is transported as an electron in the current.  Fibre optic cables are much more popular because they can carry a lot more data than a power line. And data transmission from smart phones has increased: As I was informed only smart phones worldwide now need 4,200 MW, i.e. 3 nuclear power plants as German Brockdorf. Better to produce this energy need by solar energy!

 Nuclear power plants based on nuclear fission (see Why Renewable Energies?)

The extension of the energy networks in Germany and elsewhere would certainly not be urgent if we had greater capacity to store the current. Focused on saving energy, storage and expansion of renewable energies  the extension of power lines network even is said to be superfluous (2-15 Natur + Umwelt, BN-Magazine, p.11) in Germany’s famous association to the protection of nature, Bund Naturschutz.

The environmental problem of power lines: they cut the landscape, e.g. cut through forests and present a potential risk of collision for birds.  Especially in landscapes with big birds as water birds, raptors or storks, these can fly against the power lines. In medium-voltage lines – depending on the design of the construction – medium-sized to large birds can be killed by the electric current on the masts. Both causes can lead to large losses. Aid measures are known: visualisation of grounding ropes with bird protecting pennants, replacing support insulators, insulation of hazardous conductors. The aid measures are not implemented sufficiently, so let’s avoid power lines as far as possible. Cables in power lines are made of metal because you can send electrons through metal, in general these are made from copper. Please read as well  Fibre optic cables

“Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time… Cogeneration is a thermodynamically efficient use of fuel.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cogeneration. The principle seems to be very simple: A fuel is burnt, which drives a generator to produce electricity. The resulting heat is stored in a buffer memory for heating water and supplying the radiators. The plants can use renewable raw materials such as wood pellets, bio diesel and vegetable oil. Vegetable oil as fuel is considered very critical since produced often in countries where rain forest is damaged to harvest it – despite alliances to control it as “RSPO, Round table of Sustainable Palmoil” (see Wikipedia, Germany). Conventional fuels are oil, natural gas and LPG (Flüssiggas/ fluid gas). Technologically different motors drive the CHP plants as Stirling engines, gas turbines and steam engines, ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle)-systems. When big co-generation plants transfer the energy via power lines and district heating pipes, a lot of energy is lost. Therefore small cogeneration plants are of great advantage – installed directly in the rooms of the final user, mostly in the cellar. Then the efficiency is said to be about 80-90 per cent, compared to those from large plants with a reduced claimed efficiency of 45 per cent. See please aswell:

19 May 2015: http://www.co2online.de/modernisieren-und-bauen/blockheizkraftwerk-kraft-waerme-kopplung/blockheizkraftwerk-funktionsweise-wirkungsgrad/

In the future, a technology powered by burning fuel cell eventually will achieve the highest efficiency. The latter technology is not powered by a motor or engine instead by chemical reaction in the burning fuel cell (resulting ions and free electrons). This chemical reaction generates heat and electricity to be used. Advantages might be less maintenance, reduction of CO2 Footprint (greenhouse gases) and high efficiencies. http://www.blockheizkraftwerk-bhkw.net/funktionsweise/brennstoffzelleThe new technology still is introduced to the markets.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermie

See here please in the link below the length of the point 6 “risks”. These plants are not even free of CO2 – greenhouse gaze emissions https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_electricity, compared to other Renewable energy sources. Thus I can not consider them a truly sustainable, renewable source of energy.

There usually are major industrial projects to exploit this critical energy source. These not only seem to devour millions of tax Euros in Germany. Other Renewable energy sources often are far more efficient in producing electricity.

The following explanatory lines are from a hand-out (about 2013) in our region, investigation was done by a very engaged journalist: Big Geo Thermal Plants use the warmth in the earth of 100-150 degree Celsius to convert it into electrical current. The efficiency seems to be very low. It needs a bore / drilling into the depths of the earth between 500 up to 5,000 meters. The warmth seems to be generated by radio active decay processes. Furthermore, these plants cause many small earthquakes, are very bad for the nature and even seem to use chemicals. Two Geo Thermal Energy Plants in Germany (Landau and Unterhaching close to Munich in Germany) were in the focus: The one in Landau caused visible building damages. Both burdened the municipalities with high depths.

Small Geo Thermal Energy plants up to 400 meters deep – as to another information given to me - draw out the warmth of the earth and in cold winters plants in the gardens die.

Due to an information I received, the world’s biggest ice storage project was realised in Hamburg in Germany in 2012. A Swiss company delivered the most efficient solar tubes collectors to power the whole.

The system is based on the phenomenon of crystallization energy: This energy is released in the form of heat, when the water changes its aggregate state from liquid to solid, i.e. changed when it freezes. 126 liters water if concealing to ice release an energy-amount of one liter of heating oil. The ice in a renewable process can be warmed and re-used for concealing into ice. With heat pump and heat exchanger this energy can be used in the home. (Article 20th of May 2015, Kreisbote Landsberg, page 19) 

Nuclear Fusion may not be confused with nuclear fission, the principle of the nuclear power plants, where uranium is used.

The topic Nuclear Fusion Systems is critically considered by many engineers. But we might be always open minded. The hot fusion (also the Lockheed system, see below) might need some more 10 years or even more. There are less engineers open minded for the system of the cold fusion – but NASA, MIT and CERN already have granted the option. Currently the feasibility is still very unclear, but we must not forget nuclear fusion on the list of potential major milestones. Even in my region, someone was said to develop a system. Until now, it is discussed, if it physically works. In case the cold fusion works, the system probably may sweep away other systems from the markets. Small energy plants then can be installed for decentralized energy supply in the cellar and older big plants powered by gas / coal / oil might as well be converted to the new system of cold fusion. Besides useful purposes in medicine and chemical production only cars are said to need further oil since cars are expected to need more 5-10 years to drive with stability when powered by other sources: Cars are exposed to enormous loads as outside temperatures, vibrations, user profiles etc.

We can be happy about any kWh produced in the current situation with solar systems. The solar energy is free of any costs and free of CO2 emissions. Producing energy, heating or cooling does not need as much steel and concrete as big wind turbines need. Some solar systems even are nearly free of maintenance.

Powered by Sun there are mainly two different systems:

A - Thermal systems for cooling and heating, even producing electrical energy

B - PV / Photo Voltaic systems for producing electrical energy

19 Dec 2014 http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/dec/19/green-light-for-worlds-largest-planned-tidal-energy-project-in-scotland. Tidal energy projects: These projects use wave and tidal power of the oceans: Due to the article the world’s largest tidal project (in German language Strömungskraftwerk) MeyGen was planned to go into operation before Scotland’s coast, the coast of Caithland in Jan 2015. Up to 269 turbines will be installed to produce electrical energy for up to 175,000 homes. In an announcement to investors as the Guardian cites, they write: “We believe MeyGen is the worlds’ largest planned tidal project with a capacity of 400 MW”. We in Royal Network & Production Alliance hope, a qualified Eco Audit/Environment Impact Assessment was done including the protection of water birds, cetaceans, fish and other biota. We do assume that the underwater turbines do not shred the underwater creatures, what easily might be - but that they are protected by inventions of the engineers. Dependent on the construction and adjacent shallow water areas may be affected.

Big Wind Turbines without Eco-Audit: Big Wind-Turbines or smaller wind turbines produce energy without any CO2 emissions. They contribute to produce energy in an environmental friendly way. Unfortunately until today an Energy Environmental Accounting/Eco Audit  was not yet submitted (information from German Ministerial side), which comprises the whole chain from extraction of raw materials as steel up to scrapping and erecting new power line systems. Furthermore there is another problem with wind energy: In periods with strong winds there might be an overcapacity in the generation of current, but in calm periods there will be a lack of it. Other means of current generation have to be held available to compensate for this situation. Many companies from abroad want to invest into the German energy market, since the German EEG law (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz) seems to guarantee further profits, despite significantly reduced subsidies.  

On the downside, wind turbines can kill bats and birds, especially raptors. We might all care together for their survival: Big Wind-Turbines can be of enormous damage to raptors – if at the wrong place. In that case they are about to reduce populations. The problem is the industrialist’s wind lobby, which tries to ignore this impact to the biodiversity of our planet everywhere. Wind parks in Egypt at the Red Sea: Exactly this route is travelled each year by hundreds and thousands of eagles, other raptors and storks. Such birds do not have sensors to avoid the deadly blades of the turbines. Here in Germany people are very upset about what happens in Egypt to the migrating birds. Few miles aside, this danger would not occur, out side of the routes.

An engineer involved in industries close to this wind turbines branch writes, to invest already in scrapping might be an advice. The topic is discussed elsewhere also, see articles in internet at WiWoGreen.Wind energy from wind turbines even is less predictable than sun energy, and storage seems to be a problem until now.


Whether wind kite systems work or not, is not known in Nov 2016. However, the advantage of wind dragons is that wind in their heights more continually blows than closer to the ground. Google already in 2013 bought one of world’s more than 20 companies engaged in developing wind dragons: The Makani-Project claimed, to increase the efficiency of conventional wind turbines by more than 50 per cent and at same time to reduce materials by 90per cent! The Makani has an efficiency of 600kw. It is propelled by 4 propels up to 450 meters heights. Makani has now a width of 9 meters, 28 meters are planned to be tested soon.

A project in Germany is from NTS Energie und Transportsysteme in Berlin where a dragon is pulling a power-generating carriage on a rail-track in a circle.

EnerKite from Kleinmachnow in Germany developed a small power plant in the size of a container, easy to transport. Here the dragon flies in heights of 200 – 300 meters, the dragon rope drives a generator winds. In 2017 it is said to produce enough energy for 200 households http://green.wiwo.de/jetzt-auch-windkraft-google-will-mit-hightech-drachen-strom-produzieren/

22 Jan 2016 http://green.wiwo.de/die-apfel-batterie-karlsruher-forscher-basteln-akku-mit-obst-kohlenstoff/: The world’s scientists look for alternative materials to replace Lithium in batteries since this metal is not available in masses and therefore will be expensive too. Instead of Lithium-Ion-batteries sodium-Ion-batteries are a solution. Since sodium in the form of sodium chloride is available in masses in the oceans and on the earth. The efficiency seems to be lower and the weight higher compared to Lithium-Ion-batteries. Not only the Paul-Scherrer-Institut in Switzerland is known for basic research here, in Germany at KIT/HIU Helmholtzinstitut Ulm scientists replaced other materials in the sodium-Ion-batteries to adapt them better to the needs. HIU scientists use carbon graphite from apple residues (apples which were used for juice production): The material is very cheap and seems to have excellent electro chemical  features. This new battery – without any polluting cobalt as in Lithium-Ion-batteries - is already proven in more than 1000 charging cycles. See magazines ChemElektroChem and Advanced Energy Materials.

There are in general three types of batteries for stationary storage and E-Vehicles and E-Mobility, new systems are developed continuously.

In storage almost every day new concepts, even proven, and each day cheaper than short time are to be known.

26 Dec 2015 http://green.wiwo.de/neue-waermespeicher-diese-betonkloetze-liefern-nachts-solarstrom/. Mentioned is a new storage system which the Norwegian company EnergyNest developed with Solar Research Centre Abu Dhabi: TES Thermal Energy Storage. Combined with a warmth storage solar thermal energy can deliver current – at any time, as this article says. Here special Thermo-oil is used and flows through meandering pipes in huge chunks of concrete. A small solar thermal plant delivers warmth to the oil, and this warmth can be kept best by the concrete. Better than salt as used in similar cases, which can destroy the pipes at special occasions. If more storage is used only more chunks of concrete might be built.

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